Dravya Namkarana | Basis of Nomenclature of Dravya guna vijāna

Dravya Namkarana | Basis of Nomenclature of Dravya guna vijāna

The Ayurvedic evolution can be classified into three main periods or kaala :

  • Vaidika kaala
  • Samhita kaala
  • Nighantu kaala

Vaidika Kaala

In vaidika kaala the number of plant species known were very less.

🌸 In first Veda – Rigaveda : 67

🌸 Yajurveda : 81

🌸 Atharvaveda : 289

The basis of Nomenclature in Vaidika kaala were as follows :

1. Udbhava Sthana

It is on the basis of the position of arises of plant. Examples are as follows :

  • शीतिका
  • वर्षाभू (Boerhavia diffusa)

2. Swaroopa

It is based in the description of the plant. On the basis of physical appearance of the plant. For example :

  • विषाणिका (Cassia auriculata)
  • अणु
  • तीक्ष्णशृंगी
  • पुनर्नवा

3. Avayava

It is based on the appearance of any part of the plant. For example:

🍃Patra –

  • पृश्निपर्णी
  • चित्रपर्णी
  • उत्तानपर्णी

🌺पुष्प –

  • शंखपुष्पी
  • हिरण्यपुष्पी
  • विषपुष्प

🍎फल

  • फलवती

🥔कंद –

  • कंदविष

4. Guna

The basis of name of the plant are the Qualities of that plant. For example –

✨रूप –

  • पीतदारू

रस –

  • मधुक
  • रसा

✨गन्ध –

  • औक्षगंधि
  • अश्मगन्धा
  • पूतिरज्जु

5. Karma

It is based on the Action of the plant. For example –

  • रोहिणी
  • ऊर्जयन्ती (ओजवर्धक)
  • अपामार्ग ( दोष व मलों का अपमार्जक (scavenger))

6. Roga moolak karma

These names are based on Action of the plant on specific disease or condition. For example –

  • किलाष भेषज
  • विषदूषणी
  • हरितभेषज

7. Vishista prabhava

The name is given on the basis of typical influence of plant on different parts of body. Such as-

  • केशवर्धनी
  • क्लीबकरणी
  • केशदृहंणी
  • संवननी
  • शेषहर्षणी

8. Prasasti

It is based on the glorification of the plant. For example-

  • भद्र
  • पूतद्रु

9. Aakhyan

It is based on narration of the plant. For example-

  • अश्वत्थ

10. Relation of plant with birds and animals

It is based on the relation of plant with the characteristics of body parts of birds and animals. For example –

  • अश्वमार
  • गंधर्वहस्त
  • मेषश्रृंगी
  • अजश्रृंगी
  • हंसपदी
  • नाकुली
  • वाराही
  • सर्पगंधा

Samhita kaala

After the vaidika kaala the knowledge of different herbs kept on increasing with time and due toh the increased number of known herbs the study of plants could not be limited till the Vaidika kaala knowledge.

The basis for the Nomenclature of the plants also changed with time leading to a higher variety and many more synonyms for the same herb. Even different Aacharyas gave different names to same plants on different basis.

The basis of nomenclature in Samhita Kaala :

1. Guna

The name is given on the basis of the qualities possessed by the plant.

✨ Rasa –
  • पंचरसाTerminalia chebula – हरीतकी
  • मधुरा – Foeniculum vulgare – मिश्रेया – सौंफ – fennel
  • कट्वीPicrorhiza kurroa – कटुका
  • तिक्ताPicrorhiza kurroa
  • कटुफलाLuffa echinata – जीमूत – देवदाली – Bitter sponge gourd
  • सुतिक्ताLuffa acutangula – कोषातकी – धामार्गव – Ridge gourd
  • बहुरसाCelastrus paniculatus – ज्योतिष्मती
  • महातिक्ताMelia azedarach – महानीम
✨Virya –
  • शीता – बला – Sida cordifolia
  • ऊष्णा – पिप्पली – Piper longum
✨Shabada –
  • Gunja – Abrus precatorius
✨Sparsha –
  • दुःस्पर्शा – कौंच – Mucuna pruriens – कपिकच्छु
  • कर्कशच्छद – शाक – Tectona grandis
  • खरमञ्जरी – अपामार्ग – Achyranthes aspera
✨Roopa – (Varna)
  • रक्तसार – खदिर – Acacia catechu
  • सोमसार – खदिर – Acacia catechu
  • रक्तकाण्डा – मञ्जिष्ठा – Rubia cordifolia
  • शुक्लकन्दा – अतिविषा – Rubia cordifolia
  • हेमवती – जीवंती – Leptadenia reticulata
  • स्वर्णपर्णी – जीवंती – Leptadenia reticulata
  • स्वर्णक्षीरी – सत्यानाशी – Argemone Mexicana
  • ताम्रपुष्प – कोविदार – Bauhinia variegata
  • पांडु – पटोल – Trichosanthes Dioica
  • शुक्लवृक्ष – धव – Anogeissus latifolia
  • पांडुरद्रुम – आरग्वध – Cassia fistula
  • कालिका – काकोली – Lilium polyphyllum
✨Gandha
  • उग्रगंध – रसोन – Allium sativum
  • उग्रगंधा – वचा – Acorus calamus
  • सुगंधा – रूद्रजटा – Aristolochia indica
  • गंधारिका – शतपुष्पा – Pimpinella anisum
  • हविगंधा – शमी – Prosopis cineraria
  • तीक्ष्णगंधा – कंथारी – Capsicum frutescences
  • अश्वगंधा – असगंध – Withania somnifera
  • ऋष्यगन्धा – विधारा – Argyreia nervosa
✨विशिष्ट गुण
  • तिक्ष्णतंडुला – पिप्पली – Piper longum
  • तीक्ष्ण – मरिच – Piper nigrum
  • तीक्ष्णा – चव्य – Piper retrofractum

2. Karma

The plant is given its name based on its action on the body.

  • पुत्रदा – लक्ष्मण
  • छर्दन – मदनफल
  • वातारि – एरंड
  • वृष्या – आमलकी
  • कुष्ठघ्न – पटोल
  • कासमर्दन – कसौंदी

3. उपयोग

The names are given based on the uses of the plant where it is used is used as it’s name.

  • रथद्रु – तिनिश
  • यज्ञिय – खदिर

4. स्वरूप

The names are given based on appearance of the plant.

  • जटामांसी – पीतवृक्ष – (सरल)
  • वराहीकंद – प्रसारिणी – कांता – (प्रियंगु)
  • मेषश्रृंगी – अजश्रृंगी – गवाक्षी – (इंद्रायण)
  • हस्तिदंत – (मूली)
  • पीतसार – (बीजक)

5. अवयव

The names are based on the specific characteristics of the part of the plant.

🥕मूल (Roots)
  • शतमूली (शतावरी)
  • सहस्त्रमूला (शतावरी)
  • पीतमूला (रेवन्दचीनी)
🥔कन्द
  • शुक्लकन्दा (अतिविषा)
  • श्यामकन्दा (प्रतिविषा)
  • श्रीकन्दा (बन्ध्याकर्कोटकी)
🌴काण्ड
  • काण्डीर, चक्रांगी (कटुका), रक्तकाण्डा (मञ्जिष्ठा), काण्डकटुका (कटुका), मधुयष्टि (मुलेठी), क्षीरकाण्डक (स्नुही)
🌳शाखा
  • शाखोटक (वेत्र)
  • शाखाल (वेत्र)
🌱वृन्त
  • कृष्णवृंता (मुद्गपर्णी)
  • दीर्घवृन्त (अरलु)
🍃पत्र
  • युग्मपत्रक ( काञ्चनार)
  • त्रिपर्णी (मूर्वा)
  • स्वर्णपत्री (जीवन्ती)
  • बालपत्र (खदिर)
  • पृश्निपर्णी
  • मुद्गपर्णी
  • माषपर्णी
  • बहुपत्रिका (मेथिका)
🌺पुष्प
  • खरमञ्जरी ( अपामार्ग)
  • शतपुष्पा (सौंफ)
  • द्रोणपुष्पी
  • बहुपुष्पी (धातकी)
  • औण्ड्रपुष्प (जपा)
  • नागपुष्प (नागकेशर)
  • विषपुष्पक (मदनफल)
  • रजनीपुष्प (करञ्ज)
  • वाट्यपुष्पी (बला)
  • लोमशपुष्प (शिरीष)
  • घण्टा (अतिबला)
🍎फल
  • तूलफल (अर्क)
  • कोषफला (जीमूतक)
  • आस्फोटक (अर्क)
  • काकतुण्डा (काकनासा)
  • गोलफल (मदनफल)
  • पाण्डुफल (पटोल)
  • धाराफल (पटोल एवं मदनफल)
  • पञ्चरेखा (हरीतकी)
  • पृथुशिम्ब (श्योनाक)
🌾बीज
  • बीजगर्भ (पटोल)
  • इन्द्रयव (कुटज)
  • कृष्णबीज (कालादाना)
  • बहुबीजा (मेथिका)
✨त्वक्
  • बहुवल्कल (चिरौंजी)
🌵कण्टक
  • तीक्ष्णकण्टक (बबूल एवं यवासा)
  • वज्री ( थूहर)
  • शाखाकण्टक (स्नुही)
  • बहुशल्य (खदिर)
  • दीर्घकण्टक (बबूल)
  • गोक्षुर एवं क्षुरक ( गोक्षुर)
❄️रोम
  • कपिकच्छू (कौंच)
  • पृथु रोमा (मछली)
  • वराहीकन्द
🥛क्षीर
  • हेमक्षीरी (स्वर्णक्षीरी)
  • पीतदुग्धा (स्वर्णक्षीरी)
  • क्षीरी ( स्नुही)
  • पयस्या (क्षीरकाकोली)
  • तिक्तदुग्धा (मेषशृङ्गी)
  • पयस्विनी (क्षीरकाकोली)
  • क्षीरा (काकोली)
🌀निर्यास
  • बहुस्त्रवा (शल्लकी)

6. उद्भव देश

The names are given on the basis of country (state/city/town) of origin of the plant.

  • कालिंग (कुटज)
  • मागधी (पिप्पली)
  • वैदेही (पिप्पली)
  • सौराष्ट्री (फिटकरी)
  • काश्मीर (कुंकुम एवं पुष्कर मूल)

7. उद्भव स्थान (अधिष्ठान)

The names are given based on the place of origin of the plant.

  • जलज (शैवाल)
  • माण्डूकी (मण्डूकपर्णी)
  • वाप्य (कुष्ठ)

8. योनि

The names are given based on the origin of the plant.

  • मृगाण्डज (कस्तूरी)
  • मृगनाभि (कस्तूरी)
  • मधूत्थितम् (मधुच्छिष्ट)
  • कृमिजा (लाक्षा)
  • जन्तुका (लाक्षा)

9. पुष्पकाल

These names are based on the flowering period of the plant.

  • वासन्त (सप्तला)
  • प्रावृषायणी (कौंच)

10. प्रशस्ति बोधक

The names are based on the commendatory of the plants.

  • मंगल्याकुसुमा (शंखपुष्पी)
  • मंगल्या (गोरोचन एवं मसूर)
  • भद्रश्री (चन्दन)
  • दारूभद्र (देवदारू)

11. परिमाण (भार) के आधार पर

The names are given on the basis of the weight of the plant parts (be it seed etc.)

  • कोल (पिप्पली)
  • अक्ष (बहेड़ा)
  • कर्षफल (बहेड़ा)

12. आख्यान

These are the names narrated by the Aacharyas to their shishyas.

  • विभीषण (नल)
  • अमृतसम्भवा (अमृता)
  • कुशिकतरू (अश्वकर्ण)
  • इन्द्रदु (अर्जुन)
  • वीरवृक्ष (अर्जुन)
  • यज्ञस्य-भूषण (कुश)
  • कर्णारि (अर्जुन)
  • अमृतवल्ली (गुडूची)
  • कौशिक (गुग्गुल)
  • चाणाख्य (मूली भेद)
  • विष्णुक्षुप्त (मूली)
  • सुषेण (वेतस)

13. आकार

The names are based on the shape and size of the plants.

  • प्रसारिणी (इसकी लता बहुत विस्तार से फैलती है)
  • पर्णबीज (इसके पत्तों के मूल से अंकुर प्ररोह निकल कर नया पौधा उत्पन्न हो जाता है)
  • काण्डरूहा (अमरबेल)
  • सुरलता. सोमलता, सोमवल्ली, ताम्रवल्ली, एवं कटु वल्ली संज्ञा लता बोधक हैं।

14. जान्तव प्रयोग सूचक

The names are based on their effect on different organisms.

  • भूतघ्नी (तुलसी)
  • कृमिघ्न (विडंग)
  • कृमिघ्न (भल्लातक)
  • अश्वमार (करवीर)
  • भूतनाशन (सरसों)
  • अहिमारक (इरिमेद)
  • काकघ्नी (महाकरञ्ज)
  • जन्तुनाशन (यवानिका)

Nighantu Kaala

These all the basis described in Samhita Kaala are followed as such in Nighantu kaala.

In 15th century, the Raj Nighantu composed by Shri Narhari Pandit, described seven different basis for the Nomenclature of different herbs.

The Basis of nomenclature in Raja Nighantu :

नामानि क्वचिदिह रुढ़ितः स्वाभावात्। देश्योक्त्या क्वचन च लाञ्छनोपमाभ्याम्।।वीर्य्येण क्वचिदितराह्वयादिदेशात् द्रव्याणां ध्रुवमिति सप्तधोदितानि।। (रा०नि०ग्रन्थ प्रस्तावना -13)

1. रूढ़ि

These names are traditionally being used since ages.

  • नृपद्रुम (आरग्वध)
  • राजवृक्ष (आरग्वध)
  • टुण्टुक (श्योनाक)
  • आटरूषक (वासा)
  • पचम्पचा (दारूहरिद्रा)
  • महौषधि (नील दूर्वा)
  • बला (खरेंटी)
  • महानील (नील)
  • किणिही (अपामार्ग)

2. प्रभाव

The Names are given Depending on the effect or use of the plants.

  • अश्वमार (कनेर)
  • अहिमारक (इरिमेद)
  • भूनिम्ब (चिरायता)
  • निद्रारि (किराततिक्त)
  • भूतनाशन (सर्षप)
  • कृमिघ्न (विडंग)
  • निद्रक (पिचुमर्द)
  • मद्यवासिनी (धव)
  • तोयवल्लिका (अमृतस्त्रवा)

3. देश्योक्ति

The name is given related to the place where the plant is found.

  • कालिंग (कुटज)
  • काश्मीर (कूठ)
  • मागधी (पिप्पली)
  • काम्बोजी (कपास)
  • वैदेही (पिप्पली)
  • मलयज (चन्दन)
  • मरूज (खदिर)
  • धन्वयास (यवासा) – Alhagi camelorum
  • यवानी (अजवायन) – Trachyspermum ammi
  • चिनाक
  • कैरात
  • सौराष्ट्री
  • केदारज (पद्मक)

4. लांछन

On the basis of different characteristics of the plant.

  • चित्रबीजा (विडंग)
  • चित्रपर्णी (पृश्निपर्णी)
  • चित्रक ( मूर्वा)
  • राजीफल ( पटोल)
  • चित्रा (मूषाकर्णी)

5. उपमा

On the basis of similarity of the plant part with anything of animal etc.

  • माषपर्णी (जिसमें उड़द के समान पत्र हों)
  • मुद्गपर्णी (जिसमें मुद्ग के समान पत्र हों)
  • मेषशृंगी (जिसका फल भेड़ के सींग की आकृति का हो)
  • काकजंघा (जिसके काण्ड कौवे की जांघ के समान हों)
  • शंखपुष्पी (जिसके पुष्प शंख के समान वर्ण वाले हों)
  • गवाक्षी (इन्द्रायण-जिसके पुष्प गाय की आँख के समान हों)
  • हस्तिदंत (मूली-हाथी के दान्त के समान आकृतियुक्त)
  • काकनासा (जिसके फल कौवे की नासा जैसे हों)
  • कर्कटशृंगी (केकड़े के सींग जैसी आकृति)
  • कर्णिकार (जिसके पुष्प झुमके के आकार में हों)
  • शुकनाश (श्योनाक-जिसके फल शुक (तोता) की नासा जैसे हों)
  • छत्रा (धान्यक-जिसके पुष्प छाते के समान हों)
  • मण्डूकपर्णी (ब्राह्मी-जिसके पत्र मेंढ़क के वर्ण के हों)।

6. वीर्य

Based on potency of the plant.

  • ऊषणा (पिप्पली)
  • ऊषण (मरिच एवं शुण्ठी)
  • शीता (बला)

7. इतराह्वय

The names given just like that without any reason or cause.

  • देवाह्वा (देवदारू)
  • शक्राह्वा (इन्द्रयव)
  • काकाह्वा (काकमाची)
  • अनलनामा (चित्रक)

👩‍🔬Scientific nomenclature

Systemic or Binomial Nomenclature

The word binomial is a Latin word which means ‘double name’. In 1758, Linnaeus in his book ‘Systema Naturae explained the system of scientific or technical names for animals and plants and it was termed as Binomial Nomenclature, meaning a system of two-word names.

This system of giving scientific names to all the species of living world is being used across the world. For example Rosa indica is the scientific name of 🌹Rose plant and Mangifera Indica is name of Mango tree.

The first word indicates the Genus of the organism and is called generic name. The second word refers to the species of the organism and is called specific name or specific epithet.

Who lays guidelines and rules for scientific nomenclature?

International commission of botanists, zoologists and bacteriologists has drawn up codes for botanical, zoological and bacteriological nomenclature and these codes are revised regularly.

Rules for Binomial/ Scientific Nomenclature-

  1. Only single binomial name is given to each animal or plant. A trinomial name (having three words) is given to the species having subspecies/varieties/races, e.g. Homo sapiens europeus is the name of the man of European race.
  2. The ‘Law of Priority‘ in binomial nomenclature is there for those organisms which have been given more than one scientific names by the different authors. All the scientific names used before publication of 10th edition of Linnaeus’s book titled Systema Naturae are no longer applicable. If many scientific names have been given to the same animal or plant by different authors, then the name coined first of all in publication, after 1758 is considered valid. All other names are either discarded or regarded as synonyms.
  3. Scientific names should be drawn from the Greek or Latin words. If the name is derived from some other language, it should be latinized. For example – Ficus benghalensis is the scientific name of 🌳banyan tree. Here, the specific name (banghalensis) has been derived from Bengal where the banyan tree is commonly found.
  4. The generic name is single word, nominative singular.
  5. The specific name may be a single or compound word and is usually an adjective in grammatical agreement with the generic name.
  6. The scientific name should be printed in italics except when written as a title of the paragraph. If handwritten or typed, the name is underlined to make the scientific name distinct from the text.
  7. The generic name always begins with capital letter.
  8. The specific name and the variety name, if any, should begin with small letter.
  9. The name of author (the person who first published the name along with the description of the org-anism), full or abbreviated, should follow the specific name in technical description and should begin with capital letter and is never italicised, eg. Mangifera indica L. (L. stands for Linnaeus), Rana tigrina Daud.
  10. The date of publishing the scientific name of the organism by author may also be added to the name e.g. Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758.
  11. The names of the categories above genus (family, class, order etc.) are not printed in italics. They start with the capital letter, eg – Primate (order of human, apes and monkeys), Mammalia (class of human, apes and monkeys).
  12. The name of genus never appears more than once whereas the specific name may figure many times, but each time with a different genus, e.g.- Mangifera indica, Cannabis indica are the names of Mango tree and Hemp plant. Two species belonging to the same genus cannot have the same specific name.
  13. When a scientific name is changed due to certain reasons, the original author’s name is given in parenthesis.
  14. Sometimes, the generic and common names of an organism are same, e.g. 🦍Gorilla is the generic name of gorilla (an ape) and Eucalyptus is the generic name of eucalyptus tree.
  15. Sometimes the generic and specific names of an organism are same e.g.-Gorilla gorilla.
  16. The names of the organisms published prior to the publication of Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758 are not to be recognized.

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