गोक्षुर

GOKSHURA

Botanical Name : Tribulus terrestris.

Family: Zygophyllaceae.
Tribulus means, having three sides.
terrestris means of the ground

Classical Categorization:
Charaka samhita: शोथहर, मूत्रविरेचनीय, कृमिघ्न, अनुवासनोपग महाकषाय ।
Sushruta Samhita : विदारिगंधादि, वीरतर्वादि, लघुपंचमूल, कण्टकपंचमूल, वाताश्मरीभेदन।
Bhavaprakasha nighantu : गुडूच्यादि वर्ग।

Synonyms :
1. Kshuraka
2. Swadukantaka
3. Shavadanshtra
4. Gokantaka
5. Bakshakantaka
6. Kantaphala
7. Trikantaka
8. Ikshugandhika
9. Vanashringataka
10. Chanadruma
11. Sthalashringataka
12. Shadanga
13. Plankasha

Latin –ट्रिबुलस टेरेस्ट्रिस ( Tribulus terrestris Linn.);
संस्कृत- गोक्षुर (छुरे की तरह तेज़ कांटे खेतों में चरने वाले पशुओं के पैर में गड़ते हैं और क्षत करते हैं); श्वदंष्ट्रा (कुत्ते की दंष्ट्रा-canine teeth के सदृश तीक्ष्ण कंटक युक्त ); स्वादुकंटक ( मधुर कंटक वाला ); त्रिकंटक ( तीन काँटों वाला ); वनशृङ्गाट ( वनों में होने वाला सिंघाड़े की आकृति का फल ); चणद्रुम ( चने के सदृश पत्रयुक्त ); इक्षुगन्धिका ( ईख के समान मधुर गंध वाला );
हिन्दी-गोखरू,हषचिकार;
बांग्ला-गोखरू, गोक्षुर;
मराठी –सराटे, कांटे गोखरू,
गुजराती-न्हाना गोखरू,बेठा गोखरू;
पंजाबी- भाखड़ा;
तामिल, मलयालम-नेरुंजी;
तेलगु –पन्नेरूमुल्लू;
कन्नड़-सन्ना नेम्गुलु;
फ़ारसी-खोरखसक;
अरबी-हसक;
अंग्रेज़ी-लैंड कैल्ट्राप्स ( Land caltrops );
पंक्चर वाइन ( Puncture vine ) ।

External Morphology:
Annual or perennial prostrate herb. With many slender spreading branches and is clotted with silky hairs.
Leaves are pinnate and opposite.
Leaflets are almost sessile rounded or oblique at the base and mucronate at the apex.
Flowers are bright yellow, solitary and pseudo axillary or leaf opposite.
Fruit are glabrous, hairy, 5 angled, spinous with 2 long and 2 short and spine on each cocci.
Seeds one or more in each coccus.

Habitat:
Throughout India as a weed along roadside and waste places.

Chemical Composition :
Fruits contains chlorogenin, diosgenin, gitogenin, rutin, rhamnose.
Roots contains campesterol, B-ritosterol and stigmasterol, neotigogenin.
Aerial parts cobrains astregolin, diosein, diosgenin, hecogenin, ruscogenin, trillin, furostanol glycoside, spirosterol saponin,
terrestris A-F saponins C And G etc.

Varieties :
There are two type of varieties :
1. T. terrestris (zygophyllaceae E)
2. Pedalium murex (pedaliaceae F.)

P.murex is a glabrous annual herb. Leaves opposite or alternate, irregularly toothed or almost lobed Flowers solitary, axillary with 2  glands at the base. Fruits are capsule, hard indehiscent, pyramidal ovoid with a 4 patent spines from base.

Rasapanchaka :
Rasa : Madhur
Guna: Guru, Snigdha
Virya : Sheeta
Vipaka : Madhura
Dosha Karma :Vata Pitta shamak

Indications :
Aamavata, Mutrakrichra, Keshavikara, Asmari, Vrikkavikara, Shotha, Ashmari, Vatarakta.

Part Used: Panchanga

Doses : Chorana 3-6gms

Aamika Prayoga:
1. Vajikarana : Gokshura phala chorana is boiled with milk and consumed.
2. Aamavatta : Kwatha of shunthi and gokshura is useful.
3. Mutrakrichra: Gokshura is boiled in milk and after cooling given internally to relieve the condition.
4. Ashmari: Swarasa of Gokshura panchanga is boiled with goghrita and administered with milk.
5. Vrikkavikara: Phanta prepared with fruit of gokshura is useful.

Yoga:
1. Gokshuradi churna
2. Gokshuradi guggulu
3. Gokshuradi kwatha
4. Dashmoolarishta
5. Dashmoolaadi Taila
6. Amritarishta
7. Sahcharaadi Taila

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