वचा

VACHA Botanical Name: Acorus calamus Family: Araceae Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : विरेचन, लेखनीय, अर्शोघ्न, तृप्तिघ्न, आस्थापनोपग, शीतप्रशमन,संज्ञास्थापन, तिक्तस्कन्ध, शिरोविरेचन Sushruta Samhita :  पिप्पल्यादी , वचादि     मुस्तादि. ,ऊर्ध्व भागहर । Bhavprakash Nighantu : Haritakyadi varga. Synonyms : 1. Aruna 2. Ugraa 3. Ugragandha 4. Karshini 5. Golomi 6. Jatila 7. Bodhaniya 8. Bhootnashini 9. Mangalya 10. Rakshohaani 11. Lomashi 12. Vijaya 13. Shataparveeka 14. Shoolahani 15. Shadgrantha 16. Samaarani 17. Swaaralu 18. Kshudrapatri Latin-एकोरस कैलेमस (Acorus calamus Linn.) Sanskrit - वचा. ( वचनशक्तिवर्धक ), उग्रगन्धा (तीक्ष्णगन्धयुक्त ), षड्ग्रन्था (छः गांठों वाली) गोलोमी ( गौ के समान रोमयुक्त), Marathi-वेखण्ड; गुजराती-वज, धोड़ावज; पंजाबी- वर्च , वरज कश्मिरी-वय; तेलगु-वस ; तामिल-वसम्बु मलयालम-बवम्बु, अरबी-वज्ज; ऊदुल्वज्ज; फारसी-अगरे तुर्की, कारूनक; English-  (Sweet flag ) I Habitat: It is found near Marshy wet places, edges of lakes, tanks streams and rivers. Morphology: Is an aromatic marshy herb with creeping root stock. Leaves Simple Alternate, strongly aromatic, very closely arranged, vertically oriented, linear to narrowly ensiform, bright green, broad based, acute tipped. Flower short stampy sessile, Fruit 3 celled fleshy capsule. Important phytoconstituents : Volatile oil (Asanyl alcohol, Eugenol, Asarone), Acorn, Starch, and Tannin, Asaryl aldehyde, A-asarone and B-asarone, caffeine etc. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Katu, Tikta Guna: Laghu, Tikshana Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Karma: Kapha-vata shamaka Rogahanaata : Unmada, Apasmara, Javara. Aamayika Prayoga: 1. Amla-pitta: Vacha churna along with honey and jaggery is given. 2. Apasmara: Vacha choorana along with Honey and Ghrita is given for 3 days along with milk is on the only diet. 3. Shopha : Pastae of Vacha and Sarshapa is applied locally. 4. In Vamana karma for kasa swasa: Vacha churna with lavan in warm water is given. 5. Peenaas : Kwatha of Vacha is given. 6. Suryavarta : Pressed snuff of Vacha and pippali is useful. 7. Udara shoola : Vacha, suvarchala, Hingu, Ativisha , Haritaki, and Indrayava is given. Part used- मूल , भौमिक  काण्ड Harmful effect- This  is harmful for पित्त  प्रकृति । Prevention - To prevent its harmful effects fennel seeds and lemon juice should be given. Matra: Churana 125-500mg For Vamana 1-2 gm Yoga/ Important formulations : 1. Saraswat churna 2. Medhya…

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जंबू

JAMBU Botanical Name : Syzygium cumini. Family: Myrtaceae. Botanical Synonym : Eugenia jambolana. Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : मत्रसंग्रहणीय, पुरीषविरंजनीय, छर्दिनिग्रहणीय महाकषाय। Sushruta Samhita: न्यग्रोधादि गण। Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : आम्रादि वर्ग। Synonyms : 1. Phalendra 2. Rajajambu 3. Mahaphala 4. Mahajambu 5. Suchipatra 6. Jambu 7. Mahaskandha 8. Maharasa 9. Meghamodini 10. Neelaphala 11. Neelanjanachada latin-सिजिगियम क्युमिनि (Syzygium cumini) संस्कृत-जम्बू, महाफला, फलेन्द्रा: हिन्दी -जामुन. बांग्ला- कालजाम; पंजाबी- जामलु; मराठी- जांभूल; गुजराती- जांबू; तामिल-शबल नावल, तेलगु- नेरेडू; मलयालम-नवल्, कन्नड़-नेरले; अंग्रेज़ी-जामुन (Jamun)। External Morphology: It is a medium sized large tree with smooth light grey bark having dark patches. Branches terete, pale when dry. Leaves-simple and opposite, variable in shape, ovate to oblong ovate, bluntly acuminate, subacute or obtuse, slightly narrow at the base, firmly coriaceous, paler beneath, Lateral nerves many and close, Mid rib and intramarginal nerve prominent beneath. Nerves joining in distinct marginal nerve, gland dotted, smooth shiny. Flowers-grayish white in trichotomous panicles. Fruit-oblong or ovoid-oblong succulent. Dark purple with pinkish juicy pulp. One seeded. Habitat: Throughout India, in forest upto 1890 m m banks and moist areas. Chemical Composition : Fruits-Eugenia, Triterpenoids A and B, Oleanolic Acid, malic acid, glucose, fructose, gallic acid etc. Seeds-ellagic acid Stem bark and roots-Kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin. Leaves-Citric acid, oxalic acid, glycolic acid, glucose, Leucine, Sitosterol, Dihydro myricitine, etc. Rasapanchaka : Beeja Rasa : Madhura, Amla, Kashaya. Guna: Guru, Ruksha. Veerya : Sheets. Vipaka : Katu. Rasapanchaka : Twaka Rasa : Kashaya Guna : Ruksha Veerya : Sheets Vipaka : Katu Dosha Karma : Vataprakopaka   Indications : Madhumeha, Atisara, Chardi, Raktapitta, Daha, Varna. Part Used: Phala, Beeja, Twaka Doses: Swarasa 10-20 ml Kwatha 50-100ml Churana 3-6 gms Aamika Prayoga: 1. Rakta pitta: Cold infusion of Jambu, Amra, Arjuna is given. 2. Grahani : Juice from its bark with equal quantity of goats milk is given. 3. Vayanga: Leaves of Jambu, amra, Haridra, Daruharidra is applied. 4. Chardi : Leaves of Jambu, amra are mixed with Madhu. 5. Mukha Roga: Its kwatha is used as gandusha. 6. Madhumeha: Seeds are used. Yoga : 1. Pushyanuga churna 2. Usheerasava 3. Pancha Pallava yoga 4. Jambavadya taila 5. Jambvadya ghrita 6. Madhumeha hari…

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हिंगू Ferula assa-foetida

HINGU Botanical Name : Ferula foetida. Family: Apiaceae.Hingu is cultivated in Afghanistan and Iran. In India it is growing in Punjab and Kashmir. Major Chemical constituents : Asafoetida contain resin, gum, volatile oil Resin mainly contain asaresinotanol.Where as oil contains butyl propyl disulfide, disulfides, trisulphides, pinene and terpenes.

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हरिद्रा

HARIDRA Botanical Name: Curcuma longa. Family: Zingiberaceae. Curcuma is Arabic name : Kurkum. longa, means long Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : कुष्ठघ्न, विषघ्न, लेखनीय महाकषाय। Sushruta Samhita : हरिद्रादि गण। Bhavaprakasha nighantu : हरितक्यादि वर्ग। Synonyms : 1. Kanchani 2. Peeta 3. Gauri 4. Nishakhaya 5. Varavarnini 6. Krimihani 7. Yoshitapriya 8. Varna Vilasini 9. Hathavilasini 10. Mehahani 11. Mangalya 12. Ranjani 13. Vishahani लैटिन-Curcuma longa Linn. संस्कृत- हरिद्रा (हरि वर्ण द्राति संशोधयति-जो शरीर के वर्ण को ठीक करे ), काञ्चनी ( सुवर्ण के समान पीतवर्ण होने के कारण ), निशा (चाँदनी रात की तरह सुन्दर ), वरवर्णिनी ( सुन्दर वर्णवाली), गौरी ( पीतवर्ण होने से ), कृमिघ्ना ( कृमिनाशक होने के कारण ), योषित् प्रिया (उबटन इत्यादि तथा स्त्री रोगों में उपयोगी होने के कारण) हट्टविलासिनी ( बाजारों की शोभा बढ़ाने वाली); हिन्दी-हल्दी, हरदी; पंजाबी- हरदल; बांग्ला-हलुद; गुजराती-हलदर; कन्नड़-आभिनिन; तामिल- मञ्जल; तेलगु-पसुपु, मलयालम -हलद, अरबी-कुंकुम; फ़ारसी-ज़र्दचोब; अंग्रेज़ी-टर्मेरिक ( Turmeric ) । External morphology: It is a perennial herb, with a short stem and tufts of erect leaves. Rhizome-cylindrical, ovoid, orange coloured and branched. Leaves-simple , very large, petiole as long as the blade. Oblong, lanceolate, tappering to the base upto 45 cm long. Flowers- pale yellow in spikes Concealed by the sheathing petioles, flowering bracts pale green. Habitat: Cultivated throughout India. Varieties : Bhavaprakasha nighantu described Haridra:- Amragandhi haridra Vana haridra, Daru haridra. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Katu, Tikta Guna : Laghu, Ruksha Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Indications : Premeha, Kushtha, Krimi, Kandu, Vrana, Pandu. Part Used : Kanda (Rhizome) Matra: Swarasa 10-20ml Churana 2-4 gms Yoga : 1. Haridra Khanda 2. Vranashothana Taila 3. Nishamlaki Churna 4. Haridraadi dhuma varti 5. Sindooraadi lepa 6. Chandraprabha vati 7. Dashmoolarishta 8. Ashwagandharishta 9. Kumaryasava Aamika Prayoga: 1. Vyanga: Haridra and rakta chandana are made into paste with buffalos milk and applied externally. 2. Dadru Kushtha : Haridra churna is taken with jaggery and cows urine. 3. Premeha : Given with amalaki rasa. 4. Pradara : Given with amalaki rasa and guggul. 5. Netra abhishayanda : One part of Haridra is boiled in 20 parts of water, filtered and used as eye drops. 6. Arsha :…

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धातकी

DHATAKI Botanical Name: Woodfordia fruticosa. Family: Lythraceae, Classical Categorization: Charaka Samhita : पुरीषसंग्रहणीय, मूत्रविरंंजनीय, संधानीय महाकषाय । Sushruta Samhita: प्रियंग्वादि, अम्बष्ठादि गण। Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : हरितक्यादि वर्ग। Synonyms :  लैटिन-वुडफोर्डिया फ्रुटिकोजा (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.) संस्कृत-धातकी, धातुपुष्पी ( रक्तवर्ण पुष्पवाली ); वह्निज्वाला (पुष्प रक्तवर्ण आग की लपट के सदृश ); हिन्दी-धाय; पंजाबी-धावा; बांग्ला-धाई; मराठी-धालस; गुजराती-धावड़ी तामिल-धाथरी जर्गी; तेलगु-सिरिंजी; फ़ारसी-धावा; अंग्रेज़ी -फायर फ्लेम बुश (Fire fame bush ). External morphology : It is branched deciduous shrub, attaining a height of 3-7m with many long arching branches and reddish brown bark. Leaves simple opposite, entire, ovate-lanceohte, acute, subcoriaceous with black glandular dots on the upper surface. Flowers-numerous, brilliant red in dense, axillary paniculate cymose clusters. Fruits ellipsoid irregularly dehiscent capsules. Seeds-obovoid smooth, brown in colour. Habitat: Throughout India. Chemical composition: Flowers-hecogenin, inositol, kaempferol-3-glucoside, naringenin-7-glucoside, tannins (pyrogallol and hydrolysable types) woodferdins A,B,C, lawsone, betulin etc. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Kashaya Guna: Laghu, ruksha Virya : Sheets Vipaka : Katu Dosha Karma : Kapha-pittahara Indications: Trishana, Atisara, Raktapitta. Part Used : Flower Doses : Churana 3-6 gms Aamika Prayoga: 1. Shweta pradara : Dhataki churana is used with madhu. 2.Pittaja abhishayanda : Swarasa of Dhataki and chandana are mixed with breast milk of lactating mother and applied as anjana. 3. Atisara : Dhataki pushpa churana is given with madhu. 4. Vrana: Kwatha of dhataki pushpa is used as Prakshalana. Yoga : 1. Brehat gangadhara churana 2. Dhatkyaadi churana 3. Pushyanug churna 4. Arvindasava

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देवदारु

 DEVDARU Botanical Name: Cedrus deodara. Family: Coniferae. Cedrus, means wood having aromalike cedar. Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : स्तन्यशोधन महाकषाय, अनुवासनोपग महाकषाय , कटुकस्कन्ध। Sushruta Samhita : वातसंशमन। Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : कर्पूरादि गण। Synonyms : 1. Peetadaru 2. Peetadru 3. Bhedradaru 4. Drukilim 5. Putikashtha 6. Daru 7. Suradaru 8. Shakrapadapa Latin-सेड्रस देवदारु ( Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) संस्कृत-देवदारु ( देवताओं के प्रदेश-हिमाचल-में होने वाली लकड़ी), भद्रदारु ( श्रेष्ठ वृक्ष ), सुरभूरुह ( देवभूमि में होने वाला वृक्ष ), हिन्दी -देवदार, मराठी, गुजराती -देवदार पंजाबी -दियार; कश्मीर- दीवदार; बांग्ला -देवदारु; तामिल-देवदारु; तेलगु-देवदारी; अंग्रेज़ी -देवदार (Deodar ) External morphology : It is a large evergreen tree, Not whorled, tips of the branches usually drooping. Bark-dark, rough on old stems, sometimes furrowed Shoots dimorphic, Leaves 2.5-4 cm long needle like, sharp pointed. Flowers-usually monoecious, Male catkins are solitary at the end of branchlets. Fruit-cone like, erect 10-12.5 cm long, 7.5-10 cm wide. Seeds-7.5-15mm long, pale brown, wing longer than seeds. Habitat: Grows in Himalayan region. Chemical composition : Heart wood contains essential oils like P-methyl acetophenone, atlantone, two new sesquiterpenes designated as Alpha and Beta himachalene, himachal, cedrinoside, taxifolin and cedrus in plant contain allohimachalol, deodarone, Alpha cedrol, Alpha humulene. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Tikta, Katu, Kashaya. Guna: Snigdha, Laghu. Virya : Ushna. Vipaka : Katu. Dosha Karma : Vata Kaphahara. Indications: Vibandha, Adhamana, Shotha, Premeha, Jawara, Kasa, Kandu, Shwasa. Part Used : Heart wood. Doses : Churana 1-3 gms. Taila 20-40 drops. Aamika Prayoga: 1. Vata vikara : Kalka of Devadaru and shunthi is useful. 2. Slipada : External application of Bhadradaru and chitraka is useful. Yoga : 1. Devadarurishta 2. Devadaruvyadi chura 3. Devadaruvyadi kalka 4. Devadaruvyadi kashaya 5. Devdarubaladi churana 6. Devdarubaladi Taila

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एरंड

ERANDA Botanical Name: Ricinus communis. Family: Euphorbiaceae Ricinus, means little tick communis, means common Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : भेदनीय, अंगमर्द प्रशमन, स्वेदोपग महाकषाय। Sushruta Samhita: विदारीगन्धादि गण, अधोभागहर, वातसंशमन। Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : गुडूच्यादि वर्ग। Synonyms : 1. Shuklaeranada 2. Aamanda 3. Chitra 4.Gandharvahasta 5. Panchangula 6. Hastaparnaka लैटिन-रिसिनस कॉम्युनिस ( Ricinus communis Linn. ), संस्कृत-एरण्ड ( आसमन्तात् ईरयति अंगानि-वायु का शमन करने से स्तब्धता को दूर कर अंगों को गतिशील बनाने वाला); गन्धर्व हस्त ( गन्धर्वों के हाथ के समान पत्र वाला ); पंचांग ( पाँच अंगुलियों से युक्त पत्र वाला); वर्धमान ( शीघ्र बढ़ने वाला गुल्म); उत्तानपत्रक ( फैले हुये पत्र होने के कारण ); व्याघ्रपुच्छ ( व्याघ्रपुच्छ के समान पुष्पमञ्जरी होने से ); उरुबूक ( उरुं महान्तं वायुं वायति शोषयति-प्रकुपित वात को शांत करने वाला); व्यडम्बक ( व्यडं मलमम्बयति संसयति-जो मल का शोधन करे ); हिन्दी-रेड़ी, अंडी; बांग्ला-भेरेंडा; मराठी-एरंडी; गुजराती-एरंडो, दिवेलिगो तामिल-अमनवक्कु, कोट्टईमुथु; तेलगु-अमुडमुचेट्टु; कन्नड़-हरलु, मलयालम-उनक्कु; अरबी-खिर्वा; फ़ारसी-बेद अंजीर External morphology: It is a tall glabrous annual shrub. Stem -erect, herbaceous above and woody below, cylindrically branched, solid. Leaf -alternate, broad, Palmately lobed and veined, lobes usually 7-8, simple, serrate, acute, gland-dotted.green or reddish, petiolate with multicostate reticulate venation. Habitat: It is cultivated throughout India. Chemical composition : Seeds and leaves have ricinine, 1-methyl-3-cyano-4 methoxy-2-pyridone. Seed coat-lupeol, lipids, phosphate. Seed oil-arachidic, ricinole, palmitic acid, stearic acid, hexa decanoic, hydrocyanic acid, uric acids. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Kashaya. Guna : Guru, snigdha, Tikshana. Veerya : Ushana. Vipaka : Madhura. Dosha Karma : Kapha vata shamaka. Indications: Shwasa, kasa, kampa, Arsas, Pandu. Part Used : Root and seeds. Doses :  Mula kwatha 50-100ml Mula kalka 3-6 gms. Patra kalka 10-20ml Taila 20-40ml Bija Churana 3-6 gms. Aamika Prayoga : 1. Aamvatta : Eranda Taila pana. 2. Vibhanda : Eranda Taila with triphala kwatha can induce purgation. 3. Arsha : Kwatha of vasa leaves, arka, eranda and bilwa is beneficial in arsha. Yoga : 1. Eranda Taila 2. Eranda saptaka kwatha 3. Erandaadi kwatha 4. Eranda kshara  

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दाडिम

DADIMA Botanical Name : Punica granatum. Family: Punicaceae. Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita : हृद्य, छर्दि निग्रहण, श्रमहर महाकषाय Sushruta Samhita : परुषकादि गण Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : आम्रादि फलवर्ग Synonyms :  लैटिन -प्यूनिका ग्रेनाइट (Punica granatum Linn.); संस्कृत -दाडिम, दन्तबीज ( दांत के सदृश बीज वाला ), लोहितपुष्पक ( रक्तपुष्प वाला); हिन्दी- अनार, बांग्ला-टालिम, मराठी-डाळिंब, गुजराती-दाड़म, तामिल- मदुलाई तेलगु-दानिम्मा कश्मीरी-डाळिंब, मलयालम-मातलम्, फ़ारसी- अनार, अरबी-रूम्मान, अंग्रेज़ी- Pomegranate External morphology : It is glabrous shrub or small tree with dark grey bark. Branches sometimes spinescent. Leaves-opposite or subopposite, oblong obovate, narrowed to the short petiole. Flowers-Terminal or axillary, solitary, large showy, scarlet or orange red coloured . Fruits - globose, crowned by somewhat tubular limb of the calyx, with a thick coriaceous reddish brown rind, pulp red and juicy sometimes white. Seeds-angular. Varieties : According to Dhanwantari nighantu Madhura and Amla 2 varieties . According to Kaideva nighantu and Bhavaprakasha nighantu 3 varities viz, Madhura, Amla, Swaduamk. Habitat: Cultivated throughout India, wild in the north west region. A native of Afghanistan, Balochistan and Iran. Chemical composition : Fruit peel-tannins, viz, punicalin, punicaligin ete. Seeds-estrone, punicic acid Stem-malvidin pentose glucosides, tannins ursolic acid etc. Rasapanchaka :                       मधुर जाति            अम्ल जाति Rasa      Madhura             Madhura, Amla Guna      Laghu, Snigdha        Laghu Virya       Ushana                     Ushana Vipaka     Madhura                   Amla Doshas Karma : Tridosha Hara. Indications : Trishana, Daha, Jwara, Arsha. Part Used: Phala, Phala twaka, Mula twaka. Doses: Chorana 3-6 gms, Phala rasa-25-50 ml, Twaka kwatha 50-100ml Aamika Prayoga: 1.Arsha : Ghee prepared with dadima swarasa and yava kshara will check bleeding in arshas. 2. Puyameha : Fruit rind of dadima is made as infusion and administered with sugar orally. 3. Atisara : Kwatha of fruit rind is given as it is grahi. 4. Trishana: Dadima beeja, jeeraka, Nagakesara are mixed with madhu and given, especially in childs. 5. Krimi : Kwatha prepared with bark and is given…

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एला

ELA SUKSHMA ELA : Botanical Name : Elettaria cardamomum Family: Zingiberaceae Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita :  श्वासहर, अंगमर्द प्रशमन, शिरोविरेचनीय महाकषाय, कटु स्कन्द। Sushruta Samhita : एलादि गण। Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : एलादि गण, त्रिजातक। Synonyms : 1. Upakunchika 2. Tutha 3. Korangi 4. Dravidi 5. Truti 6. Bahulagandha 7. Bahula 8. Triputa 9. Nishakuti External Morphology: It is a perennial herb, root stalk thick, leafy stem 6-10ft high. Leaves-linear, lanceolate, acuminate, subsessile, sheathing base. Flowers in panices and are many. Fruit-trilocular, subglobose capsuled with many fine vertical ribs. Seeds-15-20 per pod. Habitat: Found in western ghats wild and cultivated above 2500-4500ft. throughout India. जाति- फल की आकृति के अनुसार इसके दो भेद किये गये हैं : (1) Var. major The.—इसमें फल बड़े आते हैं । श्रीलंका की वन्य जाति इसके अन्तर्गत आती है। (2) Vas minor Watt.-इसमें फल छोटे आते हैं। भारत में उगाई जाने वाली जातियाँ इसी के अन्तर्गत आती है। भारतीय जाति मुख्यतः दो प्रकार की होती है : १-मालाबारी इलायची २-मैसूरी इलायची। मलाबारी इलायची का पौधा अपेक्षाकृत छोटा, पत्तियाँ छोटी, पुष्प मंजरी भूमिशायी, फल मोलाकार या अण्डाकार होता है। मसूरी इलायची का पौधा बड़ा, १७ फीट तक ऊँचा, पत्तियां बड़ी, पुष्प मंजरी उत्थित तथा फल मूलकाकार, त्रिकोणीय और पशु के होते हैं। व्यापार में भी दो प्रकार की इलायची चलती है : १. कुर्ग-मसूर, २. टूरिकोरिन । पहली कुर्ग-मैसूर में होने वाली मलाबारी इलायची है और दूसरी तामिलनाडु के दक्षिणी क्षेत्र तथा ट्रावनकोर-कोचीन में होने वाली मसूरी इलायची है। Chemical composition: Borneol, camphene, p-cymene, geraniol, heptanes, linalool , D- limonene, menthone, myrcene, nerol, n-alkones, Alpha and Beta pinones, camphor, ascaridol, citral, sitosterol. Rasapanchaka : Rasa : Katu, Madhura Guna : Laghu Virya : Sheeta Vipaka : Madhura Dosha Karma : Vatashamaka Indications : Shavasa, Kasa, Arsha, Mutra vikara. Part Used: Seeds, Oil Doses: 0.5-1 gms Aamika Prayoga: 1. Hridroga-Sukshama ela and Pippali moola are taken with honey. 2. Mutrakricha-Ela is given with Dadhimantha. 3. Mutra roga - Ela can be given with Amalaki swarasa. 4. Pravahika-Ela churana can be given with butter. Yoga : 1. Elaadi churana 2. Elaadi gutika 3. Elaadi modaka

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CHANDANA Botanical Name : Santalum album. Family: Santalaceae. Classical Categorization : Charaka Samhita: Dahaprashmana Mahakashaya, Angamarda Prashmana Mahakashaya, Trishna Nigrahana Mahakashaya, Varnya Mahakashaya, Kanduhana Mahakashaya, Vishahana Mahakashaya. Sushruta Samhita: Salsaraadi Gana, Patolaadi Gana, Sarivaadi Gana, Priyangwaadi Gana, Guduchyaadi Gana. Bhavaprakash Nighantu : Karpuraadi varga. Synonyms : 1. Gandharajam 2. Gandhasaara 3. Chandradrutti 4.Tilaparnakam 5. Bhadrashree 6. Malyaja 7. Shishiram 8. Shrikhandam 9. Sarpawasaam Latin-सैण्टलम ऐलबम ( Santalum album Linn. ); संस्कृत-चन्दन, श्रीखण्ड, गन्धसार; मलयज, हिन्दी-सफेद चंदन; गुजराती- सुखड; तामिल-सन्दनम्; तेलगु-चन्दनम्; मल-चन्दनम्; कन्नड़-श्रीगन्ध) अरबी -संदले अब्यज; फ़ारसी-संदले सफेद, अंग्रेज़ी -सैण्डल वुड ( Sandal wood )। Habitat: It Grows in western ghats and mainly in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil nadu. External Morphology: It is a small evergreen glabrous tree with slender drooping branches. Bark-Dark grey or nearly black to reddish. Sap wood-Unscented or whitish yellow. Heart wood-yellowish-brown, strongly scented. Leaves-Elliptic, Lanceolate, Subarute, Glabrous, Entire, Thin, Base acute. Petiole-Slender . Flowers - brownish- purple, inodourous, in terminal and axillary panicles. Fruit-Drupe, Purple-black, globose. Endosperm-hard, ribbed Seeds-globose or ovoid. Varieties:   Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : 4 varieties: 1. Chandana 2.Rakta chandana 3. Kalika (Peeta chandana) 4. Chandana (Patranga)   Dhanwantari Nighantu :5 Varieties : 1.Chandana (Shveta chandana) 2. Rakta Chandana (Harichandana) 3.Kuchandana (Patraanga) 4. Kaliyaka 5. Barbareeka   Shodhala Nighantu : 8 Varieties : 1.Gosheersha (Shveta chandana) 2. Shri priya 3. Sambharaana 4. Kakubha 5. Barbereeka 6. Rakta Chandana 7. Pataang 8. Harichandana   Kaiyadeva Nighantu : 6 Verities : 1. Chandana 2. Rakta Chandana 3. Peeta Chandana 4. Kairaata chandana 5. Berber Chandana 6. Harichandana   Raja Nighantu : 1. Shveta Chandana 2. Rakta Chandana 3. Patenga 4. Kaliyaka 5. Berberoka 6. Harichandana Important Phytoconstituents : Sandal wood oil-Alpha Santalol, Beta Santene, Santalenes, Santenol, Teresantalol, 1-Santenone, Teresantalic acid , Alpha and Beta Santalic acids, etc. Other Parts: Santalic Acid, n-ocacosanol, Platimone etc. Rasapanchaka : Rasa: Tikta, Madhura Guna : Laghu, Ruksha Virya : Sheeta Vipaka : Katu Dosha karma : Kapha pitta shamaka Rogahanata : Dahahara, Jawarahara, Kushthahara, Visarpahara, Kanduhana, Trishana hana, Raktapitta hara. Amayika Prayoga: 1. Premeha: Shukrameha, decoction of Arjuna and Chandana is used. Manjisthameha, decoction of Manjistha and Chandana is used. 2. Charadi: Chandana is given with juice of Amalaki.…

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