Panchvidha Kashaya Kalpana in ayurveda means five types of basic formulations for Aushadh dravya to make herbs consumable.
Any substance , let it be obtained from plants (sthawara dravya), animals (jangama dravya) or the crust of the earth (parthiva dravya) , cannot be used in its basic form (natural form) in the body. Means, We human are not able to use everything (Plants, their products or as whole plant for small herb ) in their natural physical state that’s why here it is described five basic method of preparation for formulations. Which is called “panchavidha kashaya kalpna”
The thing is that all the substances for use in the body first have to be converted into the form of Swarasa, kalka, Churna, avaleha, kwatha etc.
KALPANA meaning :-
The processes by which the natural form of substances are converted into consumable aahara or aushadha are called Kalpa or kalpana.
Kashaya meaning :
कण्ठस्य कषणात् प्रायो रोगाणां वाऽपि कर्षणात् ।
कषायशब्दः प्राधान्यात् सर्वयोगेषु कल्प्यते।। (का. सं. खिल 3/29)
For all the formulations the main word used is Kashaya. It is so due to its property of irritating the throat during consumption. Also as it is not good for the throat and it helps in the karshan(traction) of diseases.
The word Kashaya is formed from “kashte kantham” from ‘kash himsanam’ dhatu which means – by destroying base substance (moola dravya). The substance formed from destroying the physical appearance of basic substance.
Invention of Kashaya kalpana :
Since, the ancient man to satisfy his hunger used the parts of the plants such as leaves, fruits, flowers, roots, stem etc. and ate them by grinding with their teeth, that was the time when Kalka Kalpana was invented.As the substance grinded with teeth or stone is converted into a bolus form known as Kalka.
Similarly, some substances were sucked and juice was taken out this formed the swaras.
Also, Vedas have discription of many kalpanas but the formation process is not found.
Classification of Kashaya Kalpana:
Different authors of different Ayurvedic texts describes a variety of kalpanas .
|Author||Kashaya Kalpana||Types of kalpana|
|Charaka||Panchvidha||Swarasa, Kalka, Kwatha, Hima, Phanta|
|Sushruta||Shadavihda||Sheera, Swaras, Kalka, Shrita, Sheeta, Phanta|
|Kashyapa||Saptvidha||Churna, Sheeta, Swaras, Abhishva(Madya), Phanta, Kalka, Kwatha|
|Sharangdhara||Panchvidha||Swarasa, Kalka, Kwatha, Hima, Phanta|
|Vagbhatta||Panchvidha||Swarasa, Kalka, Kwatha, Hima, Phanta|
The Panchvidha Kashaya Kalpana described by Aacharya Charaka are considered to be the primary and basic formulations for the preparation of all other formulations such as Churna, vati, Asava, avaleha etc. Means all other are prepared from any of these kalpana
Panchkashaya Yoni :
The Panchvidha Kashaya Kalpana can be prepared from all other Rasa dravyas (madhura, Amla, tikta, katu, kashaya Rasa substances) except lavana Rasa. The following are the panchkashaya yoni :
- Madhura Kashaya Yoni
- Amla Kashaya Yoni
- Katu Kashaya Yoni
- Tikta Kashaya Yoni
- Kashaya Kashaya Yoni
Any Formulation cannot be formed from Lavana Ras, hence it is not taken under the Kashaya Yoni. The reasons are :
- No swarasa (juice) can be taken out of Lavana, as Lavana is always derived in dry form and on adding water it completely dissolves in it.
- No kwatha, kalka, Phanta, Hima etc. Can be made out of Lavana.
- Kalka is formed on grinding dry substance with a small amount of water but lavana on adding water turns liquid.
- Kwatha, hima and Phanta formulations are prepared so as to bring the useful part of the substance into water and throw the extra part but lavana as it dissolves in water donor leave any extra part to be thrown.
- As such Churna Kalpana can be thought to be made out of lavana, but lavana when converted to churna doesn’t change any properties of Lavana (whereas formulations are made to enhance the properties).
As any of the formulation can not be prepared from Lavana so it is not included in Kashaya Yoni.
- Swarasa Kalpana (स्वरस): Juice
- Kalka kapana (कल्क ) : Paste
- Kwath Kalpana (क्वाथ) : decotion
- Hima kalpana (हिम कल्पना) : cold infusion
- Phant kalpana (फांट कल्पना : hot infusion