Asava Arishta are product of biofermentation in a specific way mentioned in Ayurvedic texts. The substance in which the qualities are multiplied due to sanskaara and sanyoja of different dravyas.
Meaning of Asava :
The word asava means something that is made as a product of Fermentation.
Asava is so called due to its formation from the process of fermentation.
“एषामासवानामासुतत्वादासवसंज्ञा।” (च. सू. 25/49)
The product made out from uncooked aushadha and water through the process of fermentation is called asava.
UNCOOKED or RAW herbs + Water ➜ (fermentation) ➜ Asava
Asava Yoni (source of fermentation products) :
The following are the main sources for the fermentation product formation :-
9 Asava Yoni are described by Aacharyas :
- Dhanya (Cereals)
- Phala (Fruits)
- Moola (Roots)
- Saara (Heartwood)
- Pushpa (Flower)
- Kand (Stem)
- Patra (leaves)
- Twaka (Bark)
- Sharkara (Sugar)
Numeration of Asavas :
Total 84 Asavas from 9 yoni are described by Aacharya Charaka :
|Asava Yoni||Number of Asava||Particulars|
|Dhanya (Cereals)||6||Sura, Souveeraka, Tushodaka, Maireyaka, Medaka, Dhanyamla|
|Phala (Fruit)||26||Mrudweeka, Kharjura, Kashmarya, Dhanvana, Rajadana, Trinashoonya,|
Parooshaka, Abhaya, Amalaki, Mrugalindika, Jambu, Kapitha, Kuvala, Badara,
Karkandhu, Peelu, Priyala, Panasa, Nyagrodha, Ashwatha, Plaksha, Kapeetana,
Udumbara, Ajamoda, Shrungataka, Shaankhini
|Moolasava||11||Vidarigandha, Ashwagandha, Krishnagandha, Shatavari, Shyama, Trivruta, Danti,|
Dravanti, Bilwa, Uroobaka, Chitraka
|Saarasava||20||Shaala, Priyangu, Ashwakarna, Chandana, Asyandana, Khadira, Kadara,|
Saptaparna, Arjuna, Asana, Irimeda, Tinduka, Kinhi, Shami, Shukti, Shimshapa,
Shireesha, Vanjala, Dhanvana, Madhooka
|Pushpasava||10||Padma, Utpala, Nalika, Kumuda, Sougandhika, Pundareeka, Shatapatra,|
Madhooka, Priyangu, Dhataki
|Kandasava||4||Ikshu, Kandekshu, Ikshuvalika, Pundaka|
|Twagasava||4||Tilvaka, Lodhra, Elavaluka, Kramuka|
Quality of Asava :
- Asava increases the strength of Soul, Body and Digestive fire.
- Destroyer of Grief and Anorexia.
- Gratifies the soul and mind.
“न रिष्यतः इति अरिष्ट”। (द्र. मु. वि. यादव जी)The substance which doesnot spoil even after a long time is called Arishta.
“अरिस्टो द्रव्य संयोग संस्कारादधिको गुणैः'” (सु. सू. 45/194)The substance in which the qualities are multiplied due to sanskaara and sanyoja of different dravyas.
अरिष्टः क्वाथसाध्यः स्यात्….॥ (शा. सं. म. ख. 10/2)The formation of decoction from the herbs by fermentation is called Arishta.
Properties of Arishta :
The Arishta being light to digest due to the sanyoga and sanskaara is more stronger than Asava. Arishta is :
- Deepaka (Appetizer)
- Pachaka (digester)
- Kapha-vata hara
- Pita vridhikara
In following diseases Arishta is helpful :
- Shoola (Pain)
- Shosha (Tuberculosis)
- Arsha (hemorrhoids)
- Grahni (Irritable Bowel syndrome)
- Pandu (Anemia)
- Aruchi (anorexia)
- Jwara (fever)
- Adhmana (Blotting and digestive problem)
- Udara roga (distention or enlargement of abdomen)
- Pliha (spleen disorders)
- Ajeerna (indigestion)
- Vibandha (constipation)
Process of formation of Asava-arishta :
- Juice or decoction of the various herbal drugs is made.
- The sweetening agents such as jaggery, sugar, honey etc. are added and mixed in the fermenting vessel.
- Yeast or kinva is added and this vessel is covered and kept in the hay straw or nowadays in temperature oriented room.
- The temperature is set between 30-35°C.
- The vessel is to be tested for the fermentation process has begun or not.
- This vessel is kept for about 20-25 days.
- After the process has ended (confirm with the test) the powder of fragrant substances is added.
- Then it is strained and stored in the bottles and labelled.
Amount of Prakshepa dravya (Synergizer) in Asavarishta :
The amount of Prakshepa dravyas, which act as synergized agents and jaggery, water, honey etc. is to be added as described in ancient books. In different formulations of Asavarishta the amount is mostly described and in the absence of any description regarding the amount one should add following dravyas in following amount :
- In one drona (12.288 l) of water
- Add 1 Tula (4.800 kg) of gur (jaggery)
- Add 2.400kg of Honey
- Add 480 gms of Prakshepa dravya.
Consumption amount of Asavarishta :
The amount of Asava and Arishta which must be administered :
- According Samhitas – 1 pal (48 gms)
- At present – ½pal (24 gms)
- Some specific Asavas like Ahiphenasava, Karpurasava, Mrigmadasava are given in Bindus [1 Bindu = 10 drops = 0.5 ml ]
Anupana for Asavarishta :
Asava-arishta are to be consumed after having meals ,i.e., pragbhakta.
Water is added to same amount of Asava-aristha and consumed after food.
Precautions during preparation of Asavarishta :
- The herbal drugs must be fresh filled with rasa, virya and all properties.
- Kwatha (Decoction) formation must be according to the process explained in Ayurvedic texts.
- Jaggery, sugar, honey etc. must be added in adequate amount as read before.
- The minerals must be used only after incineration (as bhasma).
- Water must be clean and in the described amount only.
- The Prakshepa dravya must not be powdered finely.
- The process of fermentation must be done in the proper place and proper temperature.
- Asavarishta for more convenience can be done in Autumn and Spring seasons.
- The fermentation vessel must not be tightly closed.
- The test of begining of the process must be done on time (within 7 days).
- After the formation of Asavarishta they must be quicky packed and labelled along with date of manufacturing, date of packing, ingredients etc.
- The guidelines given by GMP must be followed in the formation of Asavarishta.
Difference between Asava and Arishta :
|It does not involve use of fire.||It involves use of fire.|
|Swarasa (herbal juice) or Hima or water is used in its formation.||Kwatha (decoction) is used in its formation.|
|In this unboiled water is used.||Boiled water is used in this.|
Common Asava :
|Asava||Name of plant used||Disease treated|
|Aravindasava||Nelumbo nucifera||Pediatric tonic, Appetizer|
|Drakshasava||Vitis vinifera||General tonic, influenza, Blood toner/nourishment|
|Kumaryasava||Aloe barbadensis||Liver disorders, piles, constipation, enlargement of|
spleen, cooling effect, Endocrinal deficiency, Blood
|Lohasava||Iron||Anemia, Piles, spleen disorder, diabetes, Ascites|
|Chandanasava||Santalum album||Cooling Effect, Spermatorrhoea, appetizer, Autoimmune disease|
|Lodharasava||Symplocus racemose||To reduce obesity|
|Patrangasava||Spermatorrhoea,leucorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and excessive uterine bleeding|
Common Arishta :
|Dashamularishta||Normalization of physiological processes after|
childbirth in women; anti-inflammatory, Piles, jaundis,
sterility in female, Pneumonia,
|Ashokarishta||Menstrual cycle regulator, especially to control|
excessive bleeding for prolonged periods during
menstrual cycle, urinary disorder
|Loharishta||To reduce obesity|
|Mrithasanjeevaniarishta||Sexual stimulating tonic, Weakness|