Anupana is not only the carrier substance of medicine but it has a lot of other purposes too. Most of us drink different types of liquid after food, may it be water, milk, juice or whatever, these liquids taken after the consumption of food or drug have a very essential role in the digestion process. These are well-described in our ancient Vedas.
In Ayurveda, anupana is said to have miraculous effects and is a must to have after food or drug consumption. Also, for different foods and drugs there are different liquids prescribed by our Aacharyas, which not only increases its digestion process but also helps in the fast absorption even in the minute channels of the body.
To know more interesting facts about Anupana let’s read this article:
Anupana meaning :
अनु-पश्चात् सह वा पीयते इति अनुपानम् ।
The Drava(liquid) taken along with or after the consumption of aahar(food) or Aushadha (core medicine) is anupana.
Definition of Anupana :
अनुपश्चात् सह वा पीयते इति अनुपानम्। अल्पदोषमदोषं वाऽप्यनुपानेन जीर्यते।। (हेमाद्रि)
Any liquid taken along with food or drug or after the consumption of food or drug , is called Anupana.
According some authors, Aushadha when given with any dravya(substance) it is said to be Sehpana and that taken after it is called anupana.
यत्किञ्चिदौषधं वैद्यैर्देयं रोगानुपानतः । तत्तद्गुणकरं ज्ञेयमनुपान बलादिहः ।। (यो. र. रसायन)
According to Yoga Ratnakar, if the aushadha is given with a specified anupana in a particular disease , then that anupana increases the efficiency of the drug.
Purpose (Prayojana) of Anupana :
यथा तैलं जले क्षिप्तं क्षणेनैव प्रसर्पति । अनुपान बुलाने तथा सर्पति भेषजम् ।।
(शा. सं. म. ख. 6/5)
यथा जलगतं तैलं क्षणेनैव प्रसर्पति। तथा भैषज्यमङ्गेषु प्रसर्पत्यनुपानतः ।। (वै.
प. प्र. 3/87)
As, if an oil droplet is placed on the surface of water, it spreads very quickly. Similarly, when Aushadha is taken with anupana, then it spreads in the complete body hurriedly and provides it strength.
Benefits of Anupana:
- According Aacharya Sharangdhar : Anupana helps in providing strength to the body by activating the drug to spread hurriedly in body and work faster than it does alone.
- According Vaidhyak Paribhasha Pradeep : Even Augustya Muni required anupana after the consumption of Vatapi named demon, for its digestion. So, according him how can humans digest food without anupana. Hence, anupana is very essential for digestion of aahar and Aushadha.
- According to Maharishi Charaka : The use of adequate anupana leads to early satisfaction of body and helps in contented digestion of food. Hence, it enhances the age and power.
- According to Vagbhatacharya : Anupana helps in Tarpana, brnhana, vridhi of body.
- It loosens the food eaten, breaks it into small fragments and softens the food particles.
- It makes the intestine smooth and drenches it for contented digestion of food and its fast circulation in the body.
- Similarly, the drug taken with adequate anupana circulates swiftly in the body and helps getting rid of dosha-vaishamya (cause of disease) and hence, cures illness.
- Anupana helps in tripti, prinan of dhatus, gain of energy, movement of food, Rochaka, Vrishya, removes tiredness, doshashamaka, deepana, pipasa-nashaka, varnya and making body parts firm.
Properties of anupana / Guna of Anupana :
The anupana dravya should always comprise of qualities opposite to that of Bhukta dravya (aahara or aushadha). But it should not be anti-dhatus and Anti-Bhukta dravya. Such an anupana is considered as best anupana.
Anupana Dravya :
The substances which can be given in form of Anupana are as follows :
- Cold water
- Hot water
- Aasava/ Arishta
Determination of Anupana dravya :
For any Aushadha or aahara, the adequate anupana should be determined for maximum results of the drug and food. It can be selected on basis of following criteria :
1. According to Dosha :
Different types of Anupana are given in different Doshas :
- Vataj vikara – snigadha, Ushana – Sura, Soveer, Tushodaka, Maireeya, Medaka, Dhanyamala, Sour curd, sour fruits.
- Pittaj vikara – Madhura, sheetal – Munnaka, Aamlaki, Honey, Mulethi, Phalsa, Raab, Milk.
- Kaphaj vikara – Ruksha, Ushana – Honey, Gomutra and decoction made of other kapha nashak substances.
2. According to Rogi :
According to Charaka :-
- Mamsras (Meat soup) – Tuberculosis
- For krisha (emaciated) – Alcohol
- Obesity for weight reduction – Honey with water.
- Mandagni, insomnia, Fear, Grief, Tiredness, Tandra, kalam – Alcohol
- After copulation, coming in contact with hot air(loo) and storm – Milk
According to Aacharya Sushruta :
- Snehpana Janya roga – Ushana jal
- Tailapana janya Rog – Yush, Amalras, kanji
- Raktpita – Milk and Sugarcane juice.
- Visha pidita – Lasoda, Arka, Sheerish aasava.
- Sufferer of heat, agnisantap and alcohol – Milk, Mamsrasa.
According to Yoga Ratnakar :
- Fever – Swaras/ Hima/ phanta/ Kwatha of Chirayta, Sugandhbala and Parpata.
- Grahni – Takra.
- Atisaar – Kwatha/ Churna of kutaj twak.
- Krimiroga – Vidang Churna
- Arsha roga – Bhallatak and chitraka.
- Kshaya roga – Shilajatu
- Pandu Rog (Anemia) – Mandur and Mandur bhasma
- Swasha- kasa roga – Bharangi, Shunthi, Kantakari.
- Prameh Rog – Aamlaki Swaras/Hima/kwatha with haridra churna.
- Trishna rog – Shadanga water and swarna nirvapita water.
- Shula Rog – Mixture of Hing fried in ghee and karanj beejamjja.
- Aamvata – Gomutra mixed with Erand taila.
- Pliha roga – Pippali Churna
- On poisoning – Sheerish phala Churna and Sheerish twaka Churna
- Kasa Rog – Kantakari Swaras and kwatha
- Vaataj Rog – Gugulu and Rasona
- Raktpita – Vasa swarasa
- Apasmara – Vacha and brahmi swarasa
- Garvisha – Swarn bhasma.
- Udar rog – Veerechan dravya
- Vataj Rog – Guduchi Swaras
- Ardita – Mashendari (Urda)
- Medorog – Sukhushana jal mixed with honey.
- Pradara Rog – Lodra twaka, Lodra asava
- Aruchi – Matulunga nimbu Swaras
- Vrana – Gugulu
- Shoka pidita – Alcohol
- Amalpita (Acidity) – Draksha (Grapes)
- Dysuria – Kushmand Swaras and shatavari kwatha
- Eyes disorders – Triphala kwatha/Hima/Phanta
- Unmaad – Old Ghee of cow
- Kushtha (skin disorders) – Khadira or Sariva kwatha
- Insomnia – Buffalo’s milk
- Shwitra (Vitiligo) – Bakuchi fruit
- Ajeerna (indigestion) – Sleep
- Fear – Aashvasan (Assurance)
- Vaman (vomiting) – laja + honey
- Urdhavjatrugata roga – nashya of katphalaadi tiksha Aushadha dravya
- Parshavshoola – Pushkarmoola
- Murcha Rog – sheetavirya dravya like Sankhpushpi, Brahmi
- Emaciation (karshaya) – Mamsrasa
- Ashamari (Urolithiasis) – Pashanbheda
- Gulma – Shigru twaka
- Vidradhi – Rakta mokshan
- Hikka – Nashya of laksha Rasa
- Burning sensation/ daha – sheetal dravya
- Bhagandar(fistula) – paste of the bones of earthworm and dog rubbed in the blood of donkey.
- Swarbheda – Honey + Pushkarmoola kwatha
According to Kaviraj Lolimbraj in his book Vaidyavantas :
- Udarshoola – Fried hingu
- Jeerna jwara – Pippali + honey
- Vata vyadhi – Pippali fried in ghee
- Swasnaka Rog – Trikatu + honey
- Sheeta rog – Maricha + Tumbula leaves
- Prameha – Triphala , Pippali
- Dosha sannipata – Honey + Ginger juice
- Fever – Nagarmotha, Parpata
- Sangrahni – Takra
- Visha – Swarna bhasma
- Vaman (vomiting) – Dhaan Ka laja
- Atisaara – Kutaja
- Raktpita – Vasa swarasa
- Arsha – Chitraka
- Udar krimi – Vidanga
3. According to Aushadha dravya :
- For Ghritpana – Hot water as anupana
- Tailapana – Yush as anupana
- Vasa and mjjapana – Manda as anupana
4. According to Aahar dravya :
- Shuka dhanya – Badaramala or kalay
- Mudagaadi vaidal – Dhanyamala (kaanji)
- Jaangala mamsa (Meat of animals from aridland) – Pippalyasva
- Meat of animals of desert region – Pippalyasva
- Vishkir varga mamsa (meat of birds that scratch ground with legs to pick food) – Kolasava and badarasava.
- Pratuda varga mamsa(meat of birds that peck the food and eat) – The aasava made up of bark of Vat, gulara etc. Sheeri(milky) trees.
- Meat of animals living in caves – Kharjurasava and Naarikelasava.
- Prasaha mamsa (meat of living beings which catch food by teeth, tear and eat) – Ashawagandhasava.
- Meat of Parnamriga(monkey etc.) – Krishnagandhasva.
- Meat of Bileshaya(animals living in burrows) – Mridwikaadhi phalasava or asava made of Saar of shalsaraadi.
- Meat of samudra Matsya(group of fish living in sea) – Matulunga asava.
- Meat of fish living in river – Mrinaalasava.
- Sour (Amla) fruits – Padmotapalkandaasava.
- Astringent (kashta) fruits – Daadimvetraasava.
- Sweet (madhur) fruits – Khandasava + Trikatu Churna
- Pungent (katu) fruits – Durva nala vetra aasava.
- Kushmaanda – Aasava made of daarvi and Karirphala.
- Jeevantiaadi shaak (vegetables) – Triphalaasava.
- Kusumbha shaak – Triphalaasava.
- Mandukaparni – Brihatpanchmoolaasava.
- Saindhavaadi lavan(salts) – Suraasava and kanji.
According to Maharishi Sushruta, water as anupana is best for all types of food.
5. According to Rogi :
- Krisha(weak) rogi – Sura (alcoholic drink)
- Sthoola (obese) rogi – Madhudak (honey with water)
6. According to Kaala(Ritu) :
- Summer and Autumn season – Cold water.
- Winter season – Hot water.
The best anupana –
The rain water (Antariksha or Mahendra jal) collected in a clean utensil is best as an anupana throughout the life for every living being.
Quantity of Anupana :
The quantity of churna, avaleha, gutika and kalka as anupana varies according to Dosha :
|Vata roga||3 pal (144 gms)|
|Pitta roga||2 pal (96 gms)|
|Kapha roga||1 pal (48 gms)|
- Also, the person with high digestive fire,
- well-build body structures
- Habitual of fat intake
- Very powerful
- Suffering from Visarpa (erylisepelas) , unmaad (hysteria), Gulm(abdominal lump)
- Snake poisoning
These all must be given as anupana in larger quantities, especially – 8 pal (384 gms).
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