अर्क

ARKA

Botanical Name : Calotropis procera.

Family: Asclepiadaceae.

Classical Categorization :
Charaka Samhita : Bhedaniya, Vamanopaga, Swedopaga Mahakashaya.
Sushruta Samhita : Arkaadi gana.
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : Guduchyadi varga.

Synonyms:

लैटिन-कैलोट्रोपिस प्रोसेरा (Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br.)
संस्कृत -अर्क (सूर्य के समान तीक्ष्ण और उष्ण ); तूलफल (रूईदार फल होने से ); क्षीरपर्ण (पत्तों में दूध होने से ); अर्कपर्ण, विकिरण (हवा के द्वारा इसकी रूई इधर-उधर बिखरती रहती है ), विस्फोट ( फल फटने वाला)।
हिन्दी -अकवन, आक, मदार;
बांग्ला -आकन्द;
मराठी -रुई, आक मदार,
गुजराती-आकडो;
पंजाबी-अक,
तमिल – पेल्ले रुक्कु,
तेलगू -मन्दाराम्;
अरबी – उषर;
फ़ारसी -खरक;
अंग्रेज़ी -मदार (मदार)।

External Morphology:
It is a shrub having 2.5 m height young leaves hairy, glabrous when fully grown, sessile, thick, with a narrow cordate base, ovate oval or oblong and acute. Inflorescence covered with a white
wooly tomentum.
Flower in a terminal axillary corymbose
Purplish, red in colour. follicle, recurved Seeds-numerous with silk hairs, broadly ovate, flat, minutely tomentose with a silky
white coma.

Varieties :

Acharya Charaka mentioned only one plant as Arka.
Sushruta has mentioned 2 varities as Arka and Alarka.
Kaideva Nighantu and Dhanwantri Nighantu mentioned 2 varieties as Arka and Raja Arka.
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu mentions 2 varieties as Shweta Arka and Rakta Arka.

Habitat:
In hot and drier parts of India.

Chemical composition :
Alpha and Beta amyrin, progesterone, Beta sitosterol, Caletin, Calotoxin, calotropis, Calotropain, proceroside, proceragenin, etc.

Raspanchaka :
Rasa : Katu, Tikta.
Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshana.
Virya : Ushna.
Vipaka : Katu.
Dosha karma : Kapha vata shamaka.

Indications : 
Kushtha, Kandu, Visha, Krimi, Udara roga etc.

Part Used : Whole plant.

Doses : Moola twaka chorana-1-3 gms.
For Vamana 2-10 gms.
Patra chorana 250 mg-1 gm
Pushpa chorana 125 mg- 400 mg

Aamyika Prayoga:
1. Pliha roga : Arka leaves and salt are burnt by closed heating. This is given with cured water.
2. Arsha : Fumigation with roots of Arka and Shami is beneficial.
3. Shalipada : It is given with Rakta karpura / rakta sindura, strotoanjana and the same is made into a paste with Kanjika and applied externally.
4.Tamaka Shwasa : A pana is prepared with Yava and leaf buds of Arka and Honey, and is given.
5. Jeerana Amavata and Sandhi shoola : Arka chorana is given with Shunthi.
6. Jeerana vrana : Patra chorana is dusted on wound for varna ropana.

Yoga :
1. Arka lavana
2. Arka Taila
3. Arkeshwara
4. Mahavishagarbha Taila
5.Dhanwantaram Ghrita
6.Arkavati

अहित प्रभाव-मूलत्वक् ३-६ ग्रा० की मात्रा देने से आमाशय में दाह, क्षोभ और वमन होने लगता है।

निवारण-दूध, घी आदि स्निग्ध-शामक द्रव्यों का प्रयोग करना चाहिए।

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