अपामार्ग

 APAMARGA

Botanical Name : Achyranthes aspera.
Family: Amaranthaceae.

Achyranthes, means : Thorn.
Aspera, means : Refering to the spinous bracts inflorescence.

Classical Categorization :
Charaka Samhita : Shiroverechana Mahakashaya, Krimihana Mahakashaya, Vamnopaga Mahakashaya.
Sushruta Samhita : Arkaadigana.
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu : Guduchyadi varga.

Synonyms :
1. Shikhri
2.Mayuraka
3. Duragraha
4. Kharamanjaari
5. Kshavaka
6.Adhashalya
7. Markaati
8. Kinhi
9. Pratyakapushpa
10. Aaghaat
11. Margaa
12. Ksharamadhya

लैटिन-एकाइरैन्थस ऐस्परा (Achyranthes aspera Linn.);
संस्कृत – अपामार्ग ( दोषों का मार्जक या संशोधक), शिखरी (पुष्प-फल शिखरतुल्य मंजरी में होने से ); अधःशल्य (अधोमुख कटक); मयूरक, खरमंजरी ( पुष्प मंजरी
खर होने से), प्रत्यक्पुष्पा (पुष्प अधोमुख होने से ), आघाट
हिन्दी -चिड़चिड़ी, चिरचिटा, चिचड़ा लटजीरा;
बंगाली –अपाङ्,
पंजाबी –पुठकंडा;
मराठी –आघाड़ा;
गुजराती –अघेड़ों;
तामिल-नाजुरिबि;
तेलुगु –अपामार्ग; उत्तरेन;
कन्नड़ –उत्तरेन;
मलयालम –कटलती
अरबी – अल्कुम;
फ़ारसी –खारेवाजगून;
अंग्रेज़ी –प्रिकली चाफ फ्लावर ( Prickly chaff flower)

Habitat:
Throughout India, along roadsides and waste places as well as on hils upto 90m.

Morphology:
A coarse weed 1-3 ft height.
Stem -erect, simple, or slightly branched, branches striate, pubescent, thickened, just above the nodes.
Leaves-simple opposite, exstipulate, velvety, tomentose.
Flowers bracteate, bracteolate, greenish, deflexed, in slender spikes.
Seeds single inverse.
Flowering – In Winters
Fruiting – In summers the fruit is ripen & falls off.

Varieties :
Kaidev Nighantu mentions 3 varieties of Apamarga.
Apamarga (white variety), Vasheera, Ramaatha.
Bhavaprakasha nighantu, Dhanwantari Nighantu mentioned 2 varieties of Apamarga as Shveta Apamarga and Rakta Apamarga.

Chemical composition :
Whole plant: Achyranthine.
Root : Ecdysone, Ecdysterone, Oleanolic acid
Seeds : Saponin A,B, C,D, Hentriacontane.

Rasa panchaka of Panchanga :
Rasa : Katu, Tikta.
Guna: Tikshana, Laghu, Ruksha, Saara.
Veerya : Ushna.
Vipaka : Katu.

Indications:
Aadhamana, Arsha, Kan du, Shoola etc.

Part Used : Whole plant.

Matra-Swarasa 10-20 ml
Kshara 0.5-2 gms.

Aamika Prayoga :
1. Ashmari-it is given with aaja mutra.
2. Rakta arsha-beeja lepa is useful.
3. Netra Roga-it’s paste of root is made with madhu and applies as anjana.
4. Vrana Shodhana-Apamarga, Ashwagandha ,  Nimba, Koshtaki ,
Tila, Brahati, Kantakari, Haratala, manhshila are used.
5. Arsha: Apamarga roots is grained with tanduloodaka and given with madhu.
6. Varna ropana: Apamarga, ashwagandha, suvarchala and  kakolyaadi gana dravyas are used.



Yoga/Formulations :
1. Apamarga Kshara.
2.Apamarga Taila.
3. Abhaya Lavana.
4.Jyotishmati Taila.
5. Guda pippali.
6. Shikhri ghrita.

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